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2018 《英语学科知识与能力(高中)》 每日一练(12月24日)

1. The morpheme“- carve”' in the word“ conceive"is a _____.

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2. The expression "As far as I know suggests that people usually observe the Maxim of _____ in their daily conversations

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3. For more advanced learners, group work may be more appropriate than pair work for tasks that are _____.

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4. When you focus on“ utterance function'”and“ expected response” by using examples like “”Here you are”, “Thanks", you are probably teaching language at the _____.

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5. A teacher may encourage students to _____when they come across new words in fast reading

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6. If someone says know the word". he should not only understand its meaning but also be able to pronounce, spell, and _____it.

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请阅读 Passage1,完成21~25小题。

Passage 1

In the field of psychology, there has long been a certain haziness surrounding the definition of creativity, an I-know-it-when-I-see-it attitude that has eluded a precise formulation. During our conversation, Mark Beeman, a cognitive neuroscientist at Northwestern University, told me that he used to be reluctant to tell people what his area of study was, for fear of being dismissed or misunderstood. What, for instance, crosses your mind when you think of creativity Well, we know that someone is creative if he produces new things or has new ideas. And yet, as John Kounios, a psychologist at Drexel University who collaborates frequently with Beeman, points out, that view is wrong, or at least not entirely right. Creativity is the process, not the product, he says.

To illustrate, Beeman offers an example. Imagine someone who has never used or seen a paperclip and is struggling to keep a bunch of papers together. Then the person comes up with a new way of bending a stiff wire to hold the papers in place.Thatwas very creative, Beeman says. On the flip side, if someone works in a new field-Beeman gives the example of nanotechnology-anything that he produces may be considered inherently creative. But was the act of producing it actually creative As Beeman put it, Not all artists are creative. And some accountants are very creative

Insight, however, has proved less difficult to define and to study. Because it arrives at a specific moment in time, you can isolate it, examine it, and analyze its characteristics. Insight is only one part of creativity, Beeman says. But we can measure it. We have a temporal marker that something just happened in the brain. Id never say that’s all of creativity, but its a central, identifiable component. When scientists examine insight in the lab, they are looking at what types of attention and thought processes lead to that moment of synthesis If you are trying to facilitate a breakthrough, are there methods you can use that help? If you feel stuck on a problem, are there tricks to get you through

In a recent study, Beeman and Kounios followed peoples gazes as they attempted to solve whats called the remote-associates test, in which the subject is given a series of words, like pine,” crab and sauce, and has to think of a single word that can logically be paired with all of them. They wanted to see if the direction of a persons eyes and her rate of blinking could shed light on her approach and on her likelihood of success. It turned out that if the subject looked directly at a word and focused on it-that is, blinked less frequently, signaling a higher degree of close attention-she was more likely to be thinking in an analytical, convergent fashion, going through possibilities that made sense and systematically discarding those that didn’t. If she looked at pine,” say, she might be thinking of words like tree. cone, and needle, then testing each option to see if it fit with the other words. When the subject stopped looking at any specific word, either by moving her eyes or by blinking, she was more likely to think of broader, more abstract associations That is a more insight-oriented approach. You need to learn not Just to stare but to look outside your focus, Beeman says. (The solution to this remote-associates test: apple )

As it turns out, by simple following someone’s eyes and measuring her blinks and fixation times, Beemans group can predict how someone will likely solve a problem and when she is nearing that solution. That an important consideration for would-be creative minds: it helps us understand how distinct patterns of attention may contribute to certain kinds of insights.

7. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the underlined word “haziness “in PARAGRAPH ONE?

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8. According to John Kounios, what does the underlined word "that "in PARAGRAPH TWO refer to?

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请阅读 Passage2,完成26-30小题。

Passage 2

Taylor Swift, the seven-time Grammy winner, is known for her articulate lyrics, so there was nothing surprising about her writing a long column for The Wall Street Journal about the future of the music industry. Yet there’s reason to doubt the optimism of what she had to say.

“This moment in music is so exciting because the creative avenues an artist can explore are limitless, "Swift wrote. "In this moment in music, stepping out of your comfort zone is rewarded, and sonic evolution is not only accepted… it is celebrated. The only real risk is being too afraid to

take a risk at all.”

That's hard to reconcile with Nielsen's mid-year U.S. music report, which showed a 15 percent year-on-year drop in album sales and a 13 percent decline in digital track sales. This could be the 2013 story all over again, in which streaming services cannibalize their growth from digital downloads, whose numbers dropped for the first time ever last year, except that even including streams., album sales are down 3. 3 percent so far in 2014. Streaming has grown even more than it did last year, 42 percent compared to 32 percent, but has failed to make up for a general loss of interest in music

Consider this: in 2014 to date, Americans purchased 593.6 million digital tracks and heard 70.3 million video and audio streams for a sum total of 663. 9 million. In the comparable period of 2013, the total came to 731. 7 million

Swift, one of the few artists able to pull off stadium tours, believes it's all about quality. "People are still buying albums, but now they're buying just a few of them, "she wrote. "They are buying only the ones that hit them like an arrow through the heart."

In 2000, album sales peaked at 785 million. Last year, they were down to 415.3 million. Swift

is right, but for many of the artists whose albums pierce hearts like arrows, it's too late. Sales of vinyl albums have increased 40.4 percent so far this year, according to Nielsen, and the top-selling one was guitar hero Jack Whites Lazaretto. The top 10 also includes records by the aging or dead, such as the Beatles and Bob Marley the Wailers. More modern entries are not exactly teen sensations, either: the Black Keys, Beck and the Arctic Monkeys. None of these artists is present on the digital sales charts, including or excluding streams. The top-selling album so far this year, by a huge margin, is the saccharine soundtrack to the Disney animated hit, "Frozen”.

When, like me, you're over 40 and you believe the music industry has been in decline since in

1993 (the year Nirvana released in Utero), it's easy to criticize the music taste of "the kids these days, "a term even the 23-year old Swift uses. My fellow dinosaurs will understand if they compare 1993’s top albums to Nielsen’s 2014 list. But these kids don't Just like to listen to different music than we do, they no longer find much worth hearing

The way the music industry works now may have something to do with that. In the old days, musicians showed their work to industry executives, the way most book authors still do to publishers (although that tradition, too, is eroding). The executives made mistakes and were credited with brilliant finds. Sometimes they followed the public taste, and sometimes they strove to shape it, taking big financial and career risks in the process. These days, according to Swift, it's all about the social networks. A friend of mine, who is an actress, told me that when the casting for her recent movie came down to two actresses, the casting director chose the actress with more Twitter followers, "Swift wrote。 "In the future, artists will get record deals because they have fans-not the other way around.”

The social networks are fickle and self-consciously sarcastic (see the recent potato salad phenomenon). They are not about arrow-through-the-heart sincerity. That’s why You Tube made Psy a star, but it couldn't have been the medium for Beatle mania, Justin Timberlake has 32.9 million Twitter followers, but he's no Jack White.

In the music industry’s heyday, it produced a lot of schlock. But it got great music out to the masses, too. These days, it expects artists to do their own promotion and for those who less good at that than at making music, it may mean not getting heard. For fans it means less good music to stream and download. Well, there’s always the warm and fuzzy world of vinyl nostalgia, I guess.


9. How does the writer perceive Swifts attitude towards the future of the music industry?

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10. What does the underlined word "that" in PARAGRAPH EIGHT refer to?

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